June 5, 2012 4:52 AM
On the 6,477 billion inhabitants of the planet, figure estimated by the national Institute of demographic studies (Ined) in mid-July 2005, 61 per cent live in Asia, 14 in Africa, 11 in Europe, 9 in Latin America, 5 in North America and less than 1 in Oceania. Some countries among the poorest population is growing at a pace exceeding 3 per cent per year, which represents a doubling of the number of inhabitants every 23 years. World population growth is 1.2.
Two giants: China
and the India
The world's population is very unevenly distributed on the surface of the Earth: the six most populous countries (China, the India, the United States, the Indonesia, the Brazil and Pakistan) totaling 3.3 billion inhabitants, or more than half of the total world. China alone exceeds 1.3 billion people. And the India 1.1 billion.
And in fifty years
A billion people in 1800, two in 1930, three in 1960, four in 1974, five in 1987, six in 1999... The world's population is accelerated exponentially since the 19th century, under the effect of health progress. Increased maximum has been reached in the 1960s. Since then, there is a downturn, which, says demographer Gilles Pison (Ined), proves to be stronger than expected, due to, inter alia, the almost general decline of fertility. By 2050, the world's population could reach between 8 and 10 billion, according to the different international projection. "Demographers have theoretical and statistical tools to advance the idea that the world population should stabilize within a century," said Catherine Rollet (), President of the international Committee of the Congress Organization.
365.000 babies are born
And 155.000 people die, which is that the population increases of 210,000 persons per day, the equivalent of a city as Saint-Etienne. Among infants, 213.000 are born in Asia, 89,000 in Africa, 32,000 in Latin America, 18,000 in Europe, 11,000 in North America and 1,500 in Oceania.
Near general decline
More than half of humanity lives in a country or a region of the world where fertility is below 2.1 children per woman, which is the level ensuring the replacement of generations. This low fertility is no longer the preserve of the developed world. Less than 2.1 fertility countries, include most of the Chinese provinces, several Indian States and countries such as the Brazil, the Lebanon, the Thailand and the Tunisia. Total almost 1 6 human lives in a region of the world where fertility is closer to 1 children per woman as of 2. Very low fertility was seen initially as a transient phenomenon. But it seems to last.
Lengthening of the duration
The life expectancy at birth continues to increase in countries where it is the highest. For Japanese women, for example, it has reached 85.8 years in 2004 against 84.6 years in 2000. The gap between developing and developed countries is reduced: in five years, the inhabitants of South Asia gained 1.8 year, while those of Western Europe have won 0.9 year. But in some countries such as the Russia and the Ukraine, the life expectancy has not yet resumed with the progress. It is declining even in the African countries most affected by AIDS: it reached 40 years for men in the Zimbabwe, where it fell by 20 in a few years, and 50 years in South Africa, where it dropped 14.
The decrease in fertility and the lengthening of the duration of life lead to the ageing of the population, including in the countries of the South. "There is that begin in the latter but y will be much faster than in those of the North", said Gilles Pison. In 2005, 10 of the world population has less than 5 years, 19 between 5 and 14 years, 18 between 15 and 24 years, 43 per cent between 25 and 59 years, and 10 were 60 years or more.
Less than 2 of immigrants
In 2005, 98 of people live in the country where they are born. 49 live in the city and 51 in the countryside